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In addition, past experience indicates that IAS have not brought the expected benefits to landlocked African countries, as coastal countries have created barriers, customs or physical procedures (roadblocks) in most countries, resulting in excessive transit costs or even double taxation on entry. Africa is today a dense network of RTAs and a classic example of variable geometry in integration (Figure 1). Most African countries are members of the RTA. There are four major CAAs from 24 member countries that are at different stages of development towards a customs union: the West African Economic and Monetary Union (WAEMU), the Central African Economic and Monetary Community (CEMAC), the South African Customs Union (SACU) and East African Cooperation (EAC, successor to the no longer existing East African Community). The first two are at the same time monetary unions with a common currency – the CFA franc. Within SACU, there is a smaller common currency area. Four other major groups of countries are to become free trade agreements with long-term objectives, customs unions, monetary/economic unions or common markets: the Economic Community for Central African States (ECCAS), which includes all CEMAC members; the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS), which brings together all the members of WAEMU; the Common Market for Eastern and Southern Africa (COMESA) and the Southern African Development Community (SADC), which includes all SACU members and overlaps with comesa. Most of the other agreements are cooperation agreements and have only a limited economic impact. Maliszewska M, Z. Olekseyuk and I. Osorio-Rodarte, March 2018, economic and distributional impacts of the Economic and Progressive Agreement for the Trans-Pacific Partnership: the case of Vietnam. Washington, D.C: World Bank Group.

Empirical studies suggest that appropriate support measures mitigate the loss of trade revenue when it occurs. . . .