« We know that the UK and the EU and the UN Secretary-General are planning an event on 12 December, on the fifth anniversary of the conclusion of the Negotiations on the Paris Agreement, during which they will try to achieve more ambition, » said Andrew Light. According to the European Commission`s emissions database, the seven countries that have yet to ratify the agreement are responsible for about 4% of global greenhouse gas emissions. The United States, the second largest emitter after China, accounts for 13%. The Paris Agreement formally entered into force on 4 November 2016. Other countries have become parties to the agreement, while they have completed their national authorisation procedures. To date, 195 Contracting Parties have signed the Agreement and ratified 189. For more information on the Paris Agreement and the status of ratification, click here. But even if the US decided to reinstate the deal, it would have consequences for a withdrawal – even for a few months. Unlike the Kyoto Protocol, which set legally binding emission reduction targets (as well as sanctions for non-compliance) only for developed countries, the Paris Agreement requires all countries – rich, poor, developed and developing – to contribute to and reduce greenhouse gas emissions. To this end, the Paris Agreement incorporates greater flexibility: there is no language about the commitments countries should make, nations can voluntarily set their emissions targets (NNCs), and countries will not be punished if they fail to meet their proposed targets. But what the Paris Agreement requires is to monitor, report and reassess countries` individual and collective goals over time, in order to bring the world closer to the broader goals of the agreement.
And the agreement includes an obligation for countries to announce their next round of targets every five years, unlike the Kyoto Protocol, which aimed at this target but did not contain a specific requirement to achieve it. On June 1, 2017, U.S. President Donald Trump announced that the United States would withdraw from the agreement.  Pursuant to Article 28, the agreement that entered into force on 4 November 2016 in the United States is the earliest possible effective withdrawal date for the United States on 4 November 2020. If it had decided to withdraw by leaving the UNFCCC, it could be immediately denounced (the UNFCCC entered into force for the United States in 1994) and enter into force a year later. . . .