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EU and US officials meet, to talk about trade, Marketplace Podcast, 5 March 2019 Britain hopes a trade deal with the US could soften brexit blow, Deutsche Welle, 4 June 2019 Britain faces a long way in an `ambitious` post-Brexit trade push to Asia, Nikkei Asian Review, 6 February 2020 As we have heard and seen in recent years, EU governments and businesses value their lucrative internal market through trade with the UK. Brexit: With her trade deal with Japan, Liz Truss secures tariff benefits – for products that Britain does not export, The Independent, 8 November 2020 A free trade agreement aims to promote trade – usually for goods, but sometimes also for services – by making it cheaper. This is often through the reduction or elimination of so-called tariffs – government taxes or fees for cross-border trade. The UK government is also conducting trade negotiations with countries that currently do not have EU trade agreements, such as the US, Australia and New Zealand. Trade agreements involving the UK as an EU member state are no longer valid in the event of a no-deal Brexit. The 2019 revisions also adapted elements of the political declaration and replaced the word « appropriate » with « appropriate » with respect to labour standards. According to Sam Lowe, a fellow at the Centre for European Reform, the amendment excludes labour standards from dispute settlement mechanisms. [27] In addition, the mechanism for a level playing field has been moved from the legally binding Withdrawal Agreement to the Political Declaration[24] and the line in the Political Declaration that « the UK will consider aligning itself with EU legislation in relevant areas » has been deleted. [26] Post-Brexit trade with Northern Ireland could survive systemic abuses, The Financial Times, October 31, 2019 Discussions are underway between the EU and the UK to reach a post-Brexit free trade agreement before the end of the year. On 23rd October the British government signed a new trade agreement with Japan, which means that 99% of British exports there will be exempt from customs duties. The UK government is working on new deals to replace EU trade deals after Brexit. The Irish backstop is repealed and replaced by a new Protocol on Northern Ireland/Republic of Ireland. The whole of the UK is leaving the EU customs union as a single customs territory, with Northern Ireland included in all future UK trade agreements.

However, Northern Ireland adopts EU rules on the internal market for goods (including EU VAT) to avoid a hard border and remains a point of entry into the EU customs union. [23] This results in a de jure customs border on the island of Ireland, but de facto a customs border along the Irish Sea. EU tariffs (which depend on a free trade agreement between the UK and the EU) levied by the UK on behalf of the EU would be levied on goods that run from Britain to Northern Ireland and are « threatened » with subsequent transport and sale in the Republic of Ireland; If, ultimately, this is not the case, companies in Northern Ireland can claim discounts on products for which the UK had lower tariffs than the EU. [24] [25] Why Switzerland is worried about British trade after Brexit After that, the EU and Britain can continue to negotiate if they wish, but both sides should act according to World Trade Organisation (WTO) customs rules. The UK would have no access to the EU energy market, no police and judicial cooperation agreement, and the EU`s separate decision on UK financial services that could operate in the internal market could be jeopardised. Updated as South Africa signed the trade deal between Britain and SACU+M. 5 things to know about the trade deal between the UK and Japan, Politico, September 11, 2020 Mr. Trudeau welcomed the continuity agreement and suggested that negotiations for a new comprehensive trade agreement with the UK would take several years…