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In China, a pilot advocacy project was set up in 2016 by the Standing Committee of the National People`s Congress. [42] For defendants who face three years or less in prison, they agree to plead voluntarily guilty and agree with the criminals of prosecutors, and requests for sentences are punishable by light sentences. [43] In federal courts, an accused`s sentence is determined by federal criminal guidelines, which are based on many factors. In most cases, criminal defence counsel can give an estimated penalty, but there is no guarantee. Normally, an accused will plead guilty and return months later to a federal hearing. In civil legal systems, haggling is extremely difficult. Unlike common law systems, civil law systems have no recourse if the defendant confesses; a confession is in evidence, but the prosecutor is not exempt from the requirement to present a full case. A court may decide that an accused is innocent, even if he or she has made a full confession. Unlike common law systems, prosecutors in civil law countries may not have the power to drop or reduce costs after a case has been filed, and in some countries their power to drop or reduce costs before a case is filed is limited, making oral arguments impossible. Since the 1980s, many civil law nations have adapted their systems to allow for oral arguments. [39] JM 9-27.300 also expresses the principle that a defendant should generally be charged with the most serious offences, which are surrounded by his behaviour and easily detectable. As mentioned above, these will generally be offences with the most substantial guidelines, including mandatory minimum sentences. If two offences have the same legal limits and the same reference area, but a mandatory minimum sentence is provided for only one, the one with the mandatory minimum is the most serious.

Similarly, in cases where it is a theft or a scam, prosecutors should be charged with usurpation of 18.C. This principle provides the framework for ensuring equal justice in the prosecution of offenders at the federal level. It ensures that each accused begins from the same position as the accused of the most serious offence he or she commits.